High school career
Teague was rated as the #5 player by Rivals.com, and the #7 player by Scout.com and in the ESPNU 100, and was the consensus top ranked point guard in his class. In July 2010, Teague, along with future Kentucky teammate Michael Kidd-Gilchrist, were a part of the gold medal winning team in the FIBA U-17 World Championships in Hamburg, Germany.
Teague committed to Kentucky on April 22, 2010. He chose the University of Kentucky over the University of Louisville, among other schools.
In the first game of the 2011-12 season and his career as a Wildcat, Teague started and scored 16 points on 7 of 12 shooting. One of Teague's best performances of the season came against the Portland Pilots, a game where he scored 14 points, had a career high of eight assists, and a career high of 4 steals, all while committing zero turnovers and shooting 5 of 6 from the free throw line. Against the Louisville Cardinals, Teague scored just 4 points on 1 of 8 shooting, but did dish out 5 assists and played good defense on Louisville point guard Peyton Siva, who shot 2 of 13 from the field. Teague helped Kentucky win their 8th national championship.
Chicago Bulls (2012–present)
In April 2012, Teague declared for the 2012 NBA Draft. He was drafted by the Chicago Bulls in the first round as the 29th overall pick.
Teague's family includes his mother Carol, his father Shawn, and his brother Jeff Teague, the starting point guard of the Atlanta Hawks.